Annotated Bibliographies

Team Black Velvet

"Removing the human factor from sports officiating"
Clarey, C. (2005, October 20). Removing the human factor from sports officiating - The New York Times. The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

The writer observed the ongoing trend of using technology in officiating sport and provided a few arguments against the movement. The writer pointed out that errors are inherent in human nature and there’s a certain reassuring charm in committing an error under pressure every once in awhile. Also, life deals an unfair hand every so often, and getting a wrong call from referee is just a reflection of the reality. In addition, it costs considerable amount of money to install high tech officiating equipment.

"Europe's Soccer Fans Target Referees"
Ford, Peter. "Europe's Soccer Fans Target Referees." The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 18 Mar. 2005. Web. 08 July 2013. <>.

This article sheds light on circumstances surrounding Mr. Frisk's (one of the world's top soccer referees) dramatic resignation and exposes the lengths to which players, coaches, and fans let their passions push them. The author interviews Mr.Frisk and the spokesman for the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), William Gaillard. They continue to explain that even the coaches cause uproars that lead to angered fans: "It's the coaches who whip up the masses and actually make them threaten people with death."

Hawk-Eye Innovations and Sport officiating
Home :: Hawk-Eye. (n.d.). Home :: Hawk-Eye. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

The website introduced the reader to Hawk-Eye, which is the first and only ball-tracking technology implemented in professional sporting events. The website discusses the importance of having an officiating system that does not fall prey to the umpires’ mistakes. It also describes other technological capabilities of Hawk-eye such as the 3D and 4D ball tracking, player tracking, and the coaching system. Hawk-eye is implemented in a variety of sports including tennis, football, cricket, and pool.

GoalControl: Advanced Goal Line Technology
The goalcontrol products. (n.d.). Retrieved from GoalControl Advanced Goal Line Technology website:

Two technologies are being discussed on the company’s website: GoalControl-4D and GoalControl-Replay. GoalControl-4D utilizes 14 high-speed cameras (7 per goal) to track the movement of all objects on the field. A computer that connects all the cameras together has the ability to filter out all the players and referees and is able to identify when the soccer ball crosses the goal line. If the ball crosses the line, a vibration is sent to a watch worn on the referee’s wrist, signaling a goal
GoalControl-Replay is able to provide fans with a real-time 3D rendered video of the ball crossing the goal line. The video and proof can be displayed on the large LED boards in the stadium or even on your television at home

"GoalControl to Provide Goal-Line System at World Cup in Brazil"
Goalcontrol to provide goal-line system at World Cup in Brazil. (2013, April 2). Retrieved July 8, 2013, from BBC website:

This BBC article provides the new goal line technology (GoalControl) that will be implemented in the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. Goal line technology became a controversial topic after a blown call in the 2010 World Cup. GoalControl beat out three other companies to win the rights to use their technology at the world cup. The article then proceeds to go on to explain how the technology works.

"Michel Platini: Goal-line technology too costly for Champions League"
Michel Platini: goal-line technology too costly for Champions League. (2013, March 28). Retrieved July 8, 2013, from BBC website:

Michel Platini believes that goal-line technology is too expensive to implement in the Champions League and claims that such a controversial call doesn’t happen often enough to justify using the technology. The UEFA president thinks that the money would be better spent funding youth soccer and developing the infrastructure for the sport.

"New Technologies Are Ready to Assist NFL Referees"
Springer, Shira. "New Technologies Are Ready to Assist NFL Referees." The Boston Globe, 3 Nov. 2012. Web. 8 July 2013. Website:

This online article from the Boston Globe highlights some new technologies that are ready to be used in the NFL but have yet to be implemented. Technologies include goggles for referees that allow them to see the field as a three-dimensional grid with lines for first downs as seen on television, sensors implanted in footballs for accurate spots, and three-dimensional object tracking to easily determine a good versus a missed field goal. The largest obstacles in the way of introducing the technologies are price and the feeling that adding technology would be disruptive to the flow of the game.

"Bad Calls at World Cup Prompt FIFA to Study High-tech Ref Help"
Foss, Mike. "Bad Calls at World Cup Prompt FIFA to Study High-tech Ref Help -" USA Today, 2 July 2010. Web. 08 July 2013. Website:
This article from USA Today recaps some of the most egregious officiating errors made during the 2010 World Cup, including a disallowed goal that had clearly, upon video review, crossed the goal line, and an allowed goal despite a player being blatantly offside. Both referees that made these calls were left out of all remaining games in the 2010 World Cup. As a result of these calls, FIFA began considering adding technology to the game to help officials make better decisions.

"Michael Jordan Has Not Left the Building"
Thompson, W. (2013, Feb. 22). Michael Jordan Has Not Left the Building - ESPN the Megazine. ESPN the Megazine - Outside the Lines. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from

We decided to mimic an article in ESPN The Magazine and chose this article as a sample. This articles recognizes the legacy of the great basketball player Michael Jordan, who would be turning 50 at the time of writing. We chose this article because it demonstrates salient qualities of a well-written ESPN article and is sufficiently long and thorough for us to model its style.

Team J + Andrew


"Five Remarkable 3D Printed Artificial Limbs." Full Text Electronic Journal List. N.p., 29 May 2013.
Web. 05 July 2013.

This article discusses how 3D printing has revolutionized the field of medicine. It specifically talks
about five new technologies: the bionic ear, 3D printed custom prosthetic limbs (both at a hospital and at
home), magic arms, and 3D print faces. The bionic ear can help a person hear better than a normal human
and it is now possible to create custom prosthetic limbs based on the requirements of a specific user, both
in hospitals and at home. The magic arm was made for people with AMC to be able to increase arm
mobility, and there is now the ability to 3D print faces of people who have lost parts of their faces, to help
them eat and drink normally.

Brown, Mark. "83-year-old Has Jaw Replaced by 3D-printed Mandible." Wired UK. N.p., 6 Feb. 2012.
Web. 05 July 2013.

This article presented an example of an 83-year-old woman’s badly infected jaw was replaced
with a bespoke 3D-printed mandible. 3D printing is usually dealing with materials like plaster or resin.
While in this surgeon, they used powdered titanium. The operation was performed in June 2011. It took
four hours to place the jaw and the patient was able to speak and swallow the next day.

IEEE Life Sciences Staff. "Printing Body Parts - A Sampling of Progress in Biological 3D Printing." -
IEEE Life Sciences. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 July 2013.

This article showcased some reported work to display the progress of biological 3D printing so far.
Some scientists have implanted 3D printer generated structure in human body. Some have done a
somewhat off-beat application which is reconstructing the skull of a famous king. Some also reported
projects to replace damaged external body parts using 3D printed structure. Besides, some people claimed
to use stem cells as “ink” for biological 3D printing in order to produce a replacement of human liver in a
long term.

Jayakumar, Amrita. "Home-baked Idea? Nasa Mulls 3D Printers for Food Replication."The Guardian.
Guardian News and Media, 04 June 2013. Web. 05 July 2013.

Humans have been sending machines to Mars for years. The next logical step is to send a
human. The issue with sending humans to Mars is food. A mission to mars takes years, and in order to
sustain humans for this time, there needs to be enough food. NASA, as the article describes, has taken
aim at 3D printing to solve this problem by giving $125,000 to Texas-based Systems and Materials
Research to create a 3D printer that prints food. The company has already printed chocolate as an
experiment. Currently, astronauts carry pre-packaged and highly processed foods similar to those in the
military. The high amount of processing required to sustain a five-year shelf life on a Mars mission makes
these foods low on actual nutritional value. NASA is hopeful that a 3D food printer would allow
specialized diets for each astronaut based on his personal needs. Thus, an astronaut’s health can be
maintained over the course of the mission.

Osawa, Juro. "Next to Use 3-D Printing: Your Surgeon." The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 8 Apr. 2013.
Web. 5 July 2013.

This article introduced an important practical application of 3D printing, which is to construct
personalized copies of livers and kidneys for practice. Through this technology, doctors are able to figure
out a better solution while practicing on the 3D printed copy. This will certainly increase the quality of the
surgeon. Also, in the long term, 3D printing is expected to produce replicas of organs, which will replace
the injured or damaged parts from the patients in the future.

Perry, Wynne. "How 3D Printing May Shape the Future of Food." N.p., 6 June
2013. Web. 05 July 2013.

One of the current desires of 3D printed food is for use in customizable novelty food. This, as
some researchers say, is a good start for 3D printed food because it is not time sensitive. The current
problem with commercially printed food is that it takes a very long time for each food piece. In order to
be more viable for mass-produced commercial use, 3D printers need to speed up. A desirable trait of 3D
printed food is the ability to customize the food’s nutritional and caloric value. The 3D printer will take
information about the consumer’s diet, caloric need, and health concerns and print something based on
exactly what the consumer needs.

Socrates. "3D Printing: Is Bio-Printing the Future of Organ Replacement?" Singularity Weblog RSS.
N.p., n.d. Web. 05 July 2013.

This article talks about the future of 3D printing. Specifically, it talks about printing new organs and
body parts and their implications. Would having easily replaceable organs and limbs make people more
reckless and irresponsible? Could 3D printing allow people to live forever simply by replacing body parts
that are worn out? This article lays these ethical questions on the table.

Tita, Bob. "How 3-D Printing Works." The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 7 June 2013. Web. 5 July 2013.

Objects, as the article begins, have been made from one of two ways. Either the desired piece
will be cut from a large block of material, or a cast outline of the piece will be filled with the desired
material. 3D printing adds a third method to production. This style of manufacturing does not use cutting
or molds; instead, 3D printing builds an object by piling extremely thin layers of material on top of each
other. When a layer of the powder-like material is deposited, a laser or electron beam heats the material
in a precise pattern to create the three dimensional object. Additionally, the printer can deposit binder,
which acts as a glue for the material as the object is built. The article also describes the current material
limitations of 3D printers and how, in order to continue growth in this industry, these limitations must be

Team Stux

Chen, T, and S Abu-Nimeh. "Lessons From Stuxnet."IEEE Computer Society. 44.4 (2011): 91-93. Web. 5 Jul. 2013.

Stuxnet marks a change in the computer worm landscape. While most worms are relatively small and simply infect as many computers as possible, Stuxnet was large in size, very complex, and only targeted specific systems. Stuxnet used an unprecedented four zero-days (a scarce resource) and would delete itself after 21 days if not infecting its intended target. The complexity and investment in Stuxnet suggests government involvement and a specific purpose, rather than most worms that are simply meant to wreak havoc. Furthermore, Stuxnet is the first worm to have real world physical consequences. While most worms may shut down software or clog up a network, Stuxnet can affect physical infrastructure vital for warfare.

Dorothy E. Denning. "Stuxnet: What has Changed?" Future Internet 4.3 (2012): 672-87. Print.

Stuxnet is often labeled a “game changer” in the field of cyber-attacks, cyber-terrorism, and other related network warfare fields. This article takes a closer look at where the advancements demonstrated with Stuxnet fit into the histories of these various fields, and critically analyzes whether or not it really is a game changer. For example, the fact that Stuxnet made available a route to accomplish the goal of disrupting Iran’s nuclear production regimen without the need for excessive physical damage particularly to people provides encouragement for ethically superior forms of international warfare. On the other hand, although Stuxnet did indeed introduce advancements in the field of cyberwarfare, it has long been an established fact that roughly 30 nation-states are developing their own cyber-attack and cyber-defense sectors, and have long had the capability to carry out similar missions. So, while Stuxnet seems to have made a large socio-political impact, it is not as much of a “game-changer” as many people believe.

Farwell, JP, and R. Rohozinski. "Stuxnet and the Future of Cyber War." SURVIVAL 53.1 (2011): 23-40. Print.

Stuxnet’s strategic importance is its contribution to the evolution of computer warfare that is driven by industrial cyber crime, typically used in corporate warfare to disarm political, military or business competitors. An advantageous character of a cyber crime is its complete anonymity of its code or locale (the central challenge posed by Stuxnet is the identification of the cyber attackers). Thus, cyber attacks usually impose a huge responsibility of the victim to identify the physical location of a computer or network, complicating the situation and challenging the notions of neutrality and sovereignty. In addition, cyber attacks are cheap and effective; on the other hand, they can be quickly disarmed. It took only months for Stuxnet’s technical characteristics and components to be thoroughly identified. Despite the rapid neutralization, it is claimed that cyberwarfare approach such as Stuxnet is employed to achieve political goals. Still, cyber attacks either can or cannot qualify as armed attack, depending on the circumstances and the consequences. If the attacks cause no injury or long-term “physical” damage, they are not comparable to armed attacks (then, the dilemma is whether to categorize the attacks that causes adverse economic impacts as a use of force). These aspects of cyber weapons limit a state’s recourse to cyber attacks, whether a launch of self-defense against the attack is justified or an act of aggressiveness. In the case of Stuxnet, one may argue that Stuxnet is a cyber weapon that is diplomatically useful for chronic political issue (aka the Iranian nuclear program). On the other hand, one may interpret Stuxnet as a prohibited interference in a state’s internal affairs. Due to the complications, strategic cyber operations need to weight the costs and benefits against traditional military actions. So far, cyber weapons are relatively less risky and less costly than military actions.

Harries, D., and PM Yellowlees. "Cyberterrorism: Is the US Healthcare System Safe?" TELEMEDICINE AND E-HEALTH19.1 (2013): 61-6. Print.

Along with the vast improvements in network technology over the past few years, the U.S. healthcare system has become increasingly dependent on Internet-based software. At the same time, cyberterrorism has become more and more of a threat, which U.S. infrastructure is only just beginning to understand. The healthcare system’s increasing dependence on network based software, as well as the incredible value of the data which it contains, makes it a very likely target for future cyberterrorist attacks. Unfortunately, little has been done to protect the health care system from such attacks, and to educate the workforce of the potential vulnerabilities. The Federal Government has been stepping in to ensure and to facilitate that the healthcare system, as well as various other infrastructure systems, protect and prepare themselves for future cyber threats.

How 'Flame' Malware Hijacks A Computer. Washington, D.C.: National Public Radio, 2012. ProQuest. Web. 8 July 2013.

This is an interview with Kim Zetter, a senior reporter at Wired covering cybercrime, and she is currently writing a book about Stuxnet. In the interview, Zetter tells us that the Flame malware has the ability to remotely access an infected computer’s files, microphone, webcam, and even nearby Bluetooth devices. It is basically a spying toolkit that can be used for a variety of applications. There is no proof that the United States and Israel is behind it, but there is a wealth of circumstantial evidence. The resources used in Flame, the infected locations, and the malware complexity correlate closely to those of Stuxnet, suggesting that Flame was also created by the United States and/or Israel. Zetter says that there is no doubt that there are additional powerful pieces of malware out their, since Flame and Stuxnet were likely created around 2007. This leaves 6 years to develop additional malware.

Kushner, D. "The real story of stuxnet." Spectrum, IEEE. 50.3 (2013): 48-53. Web. 3 Jul. 2013.

Today, some of the most dangerous battles are not played out in remote jungles or deserts, but in commercial office buildings, thanks to the development of a new line of warfare — cyber warfare. Cyber threats became evident in June 2010 upon the discovery of Stuxnet, a complex computer worm that managed to infect the software of at least 14 industrial sites in Iran. Stuxnet attacked in three stages: isolate Microsoft Windows machines and networks, target Siemens software (used in industrial plants), and finally compromise programmable logic controllers. Unlike other worms that preceded Stuxnet, it has the capability to exploit four “zero-day” vulnerabilities previously unknown to the white-hat community, which allowed Stuxnet to spread quickly and inconspicuously. Since then, researchers have been on the lookout for Stuxnet variants and have discovered Duqu, Gauss, and Flame (actually a predecessor of Stuxnet) among others. The implications of such advanced cyberweapons go beyond cyberattacks on nation-states, as regular cybercriminals are also able to implement Stuxnet concepts.

Langner, R. "Stuxnet: Dissecting a Cyberwarfare Weapon." Security & Privacy, IEEE. 9.3 (2011): 49-51. Web. 3 Jul. 2013.

The arrival of Stuxnet, a complex worm that implemented an unprecedented approach to malware, marked a turning point in the history of cybersecurity. Rather than gathering information, Stuxnet was created with the intention to physically destroy a military target. Stuxnet was programmed to remotely target computers running on the SCADA system, a Windows application that allows human operators to monitor industrial processes and store and analyze those process value. The distribution and target determination process, however, is much more complex than this. Stuxnet essentially hijacks and takes over the controller target by exploiting vulnerabilities, thus effectively giving Stuxnet the power to gain administrator access. Although many argue that Stuxnet has raised the awareness for better defense, it is slightly misleading in that there is no recipe of defense that will be immune to Stuxnet-inspired malware. Thus the next best alternative is to closely monitor all controllers and double check all changes made to ensure that worms like Stuxnet did not make any unauthorized changes.

Lin, Herbert. "Cyber Conflict and International Humanitarian Law." International Review of the Red Cross 94.886 (2012): 515-31. ProQuest. Web. 8 July 2013.

From businesses to militaries, nearly everybody is using increasingly complex computer systems to aid and control their real world operations, which leaves countless systems vulnerable to cyber attack. In traditional war, offensive and defensive tactics are relatively even, but for cyber warfare, the offense has a distinct advantage, in that they only need to find a single vulnerability, only one victory, to insert their bug, while the defense must defend every possible attack to be successful. Presently, international laws and treaties are nebulous at best for governing cyber warfare. While there are laws prohibiting attacks that cyber attacks could be categorized as, the language of the laws is too vague to say with certainty what is allowed and what is not.

Lukas Milevski. "STUXNET AND STRATEGY: A Special Operation in Cyberspace?" Joint Force Quarterly : JFQ.63 (2011): 64. Print.

During the past few years, people have become increasingly interested in cyberpower due to its exceptional roles. It affects the scope and the speed of a system’s information harvesting. Cyberpower optimizes an organization’s power while weakens the enemy. Such a power is also believed to be a moral alternative to kinetic attacks. In addition, cyberpower enables the attacks on large-scaled infrastructure. Destructing Iranian centrifuges at Natanz in 2010, Stuxnet represents a form of cyberpower used as a special operation. Defined by James Kiras, a special operation (over the cyberspace) is an unconventional action against enemy vulnerabilities to resolve economically politico-military problems that conventional forces cannot accomplish. There are two principles behind a special operation—the exposures of targeted systems, and the exploitations of a system’s weaknesses (i.e. a special operation challenges the confidence that people have in their operational systems). Special operations have both advantages and limitations. Special operations are suitable to both warfare-related issues, as well as those in the grey zones. In contrast to physical operations, special operations can be implemented at a relatively lower cost and in a multiple places at once (i.e. special operations compress the efforts while orchestrate the effects). Delaying the Iranian nuclear program, Stuxnet fits as a special operation. Stuxnet is autonomous, given that it can self-replicate with a quick proliferation. It is also highly able to disguise, with zero-day exploitations. Moreover, by intervening the air gap used to secure the nuclear facilities, Stuxnet is a special operation that is designed to counter security measures. Despite the advantages, the special operation, when acting entirely on its own—without conventional efforts, rarely generates extensive effects. For instance, Stuxnet caused no long-term damages to the Iranian nuclear program. In addition, cyber attacks are self-depleting, limited by the finite number of vulnerabilities that can be discovered and exploited.

Uzal, R., et al. "Trust in Cyberspace: New Information Security Paradigm." . Atlantis Press, n.d. Web. 5 Jul 2013.

The authors claim that there is a paradigm shift in the realm of Information Security, from the traditional paradigm to a new one as a result of innovative, sophisticated Cyber Weapons. Traditionally, the Information Security paradigm is understood as the interactions among confidentiality, integrity, availability and authenticity. Recently, the threats due to Cyber Weapons have expanded the scope and the complexity of the paradigm. The authors present Flame and Stuxnet attacks as examples of the new weapons, stating that the complexity of Flame’s algorithm is hundred times the usual complexity of traditional viruses. In additional to the development of new computer viruses, the authors also claim that Cyber Weapon black market, which plays an important role in the implementations of Cyber Terrorists and Cyber Criminals, more or less contributes to the shift in the paradigm. Elaborating on this point, they warn that Cyber Weapons developed by a state’s governmental authority for the purpose of national security can easily be transferred from governmental area to criminal and terrorist groups. Thus, Cyber Weapons are problems to all parties—technologists, politicians, business sectors, etc. The authors also propose guidelines for Cyber Defense. They say that national defense should focus on securing information and networks, which are targets of Cyber Attacks. Short-term defenses are also included: “defensive triad”—capabilities of stopping sophisticated malwares, prioritizations and strengthening, and the increase in the security of the IT support at the top-level decision making process. The authors also note that, in terms of Information Security specifications, a balance between functional and non-functional specifications must be established.


Blodget, Henry. "Google’s Problems With Its Self-Driving Cars." Yahoo! Finance., 5 Mar. 2013. Web. 08 July 2013.
One of Google’s latest technologies is the Google Car, which is an autonomous vehicle that uses lasers, motion sensors and radar to operate without a human driver. Blodget, who is excited about this latest advancement, describes some complications the Google team must consider while debugging their new product. The first challenge is varying weather conditions, especially in the snow. Snow can interfere with the car’s technology to detect lane markers and traffic signals. Another challenge arises from a road change that the car’s internal map may not have been updated on yet, allowing the vehicle to get lost just as a human operator would. A third challenge arises when a human is directing traffic with hand signals. Whether it be a police officer, construction worker, or a crossing guard, the vehicle must be able to register when a human’s hand signals overrides any traffic lights or stop signs. Furthermore, it must be able to differentiate between those who are actually directing traffic and any angry pedestrians. Blodget consulted with an engineer (not on the Google team) who explains that these issues are not impossible to solve and it will be interesting to see how they resolve them.
Chea, Terrence. "The Big Story." The Big Story. AP Images, 06 Sept. 2012. Web. 05 July 2013.

This article concerns the passing of legislation that would allow for the use of driverless cars in California. Governor Jerry signed legislation that established safety and performance regulations that allow for testing and operating of autonomous vehicles in California. The legislature requires a human driver to be present in the autonomous car at all times in case of emergencies. With this legislature, California joins Nevada in paving the way for the incorporation of autonomous vehicles into the lives of Americans. Some people, such as Sergey Brin, supports this legislature as it allows companies to test the technology that they have been developing privately for years. Others believe this legislature is premature because it does not give car manufacturers any say in whether the car they produced is turned into an autonomous vehicle or not. Either way, California is continuing to support the development of autonomous vehicles, as companies such as Google, Ford, Audi, and BMW are eager to test their vehicles.

Edwards, Tim. "Driving With Robots." The Engineer (Online) (2013): n. pag.Centaur Communications Ltd. Web. 8 July 2013.
In the past few years, there has been a lot of research on self-driving cars from groups including Google, the University of Oxford, the University of Parma and various car companies. As autonomous vehicles transition from science fiction to a reality, Edwards focuses on the transition phase that will occur with a mixture of automated vehicles and human driving vehicles already on the road. It is no longer a question of the technology that will make this all possible, but will rather come down to other facts including legislation, acceptance, and safety issues.

Freedman, David. "Are We Finally Ready for Self-Driving Cars?" Discover 23 May 2011: Discover Magazine. Kalmbach Publishing Co. Web. 05 July 2013.

Freedman notices that everyone thinks that they are a good driver. Automotive technology has helped offset the number of accidents caused by those who are not actually good drivers. But manufacturers are cautious to implement full autonomy because they fear liability for damages, even though accidents could be reduced substantially. Thus, the government is incentivizing automakers to develop “intelligent transportation systems” that may eventually make self-driving cars a reality.

Howard, Bill. "Self-driving Google Cars: 300,000 Miles, 0 Crashes - If Only Your PC Was as Stable." Extreme Tech, 10 Aug. 2012. Web. 5 July 2013.

Google continues to add vehicles to their fleet, there are almost always at least a dozen test cars on the road. Google Translate can read words from images which can help the autonomous car software read road signs. Driven and self-driving cars can share the road, the roads which autonomous cars travel on would need well marked lanes. Self-driving cars use an available lane departure warning, a lane keep assist (centers car in lane) and adaptive cruise control radars (keeps up with car in front). There are still problems that need to be solved; the autonomous cars have trouble in snow, fog, heavy rain, poorly marked areas and negative terrain. Rush hour travel times can be reduced by 38% (even with a mix of self and human-driven cars), self-driven cars don’t make misjudgements or stop suddenly like humans- all things that lead to traffic jams.

Knight, W. "Proceed with Caution Toward the Self-Driving Car." TECHNOLOGY REVIEW 116.3 (2013): 84-6. Print.

Knight points out that cars already drive themselves to a degree, but that we are still far from completely autonomous cars. He focuses on the fact that for the time being, new technology must be able to help the driver without doing too much for him or her. For example, cruise control and lane tracking are intentionally limited in utility because a driver that is too laid-back is dangerous. Drivers could also lose their driving ability as they drive less and less. Knight argues that the biggest challenge is how to merge the driver’s abilities and the car’s abilities effectively. Despite the potential benefits of self-driving cars, they have several problems simply because the driver must have ultimate control.

Miller, Claire C., and Matthew L. Wald. "Self-Driving Cars for Testing Are Supported by U.S." New York Times 30 May 2013, New York ed., Technology sec.

The Transportation Department has made its first formal statement allowing and supporting the testing of semi-autonomous car features. They say that completely driverless cars should not yet be allowed on the road. This transition will be a challenge and is just one example of the tension between technology and government regulation. Government officials realize that they have no choice but to advance along with this technology. The approach to introducing this kind of technology is different than that of cell phones or the like because Google realizes that transportation has already been heavily regulated for years. Autonomous cars increase safety because they aren't subject to human error, etc. 81% of people surveyed regarding this type of software were concerned about computer hackers taking control over their vehicle. Many car companies have some form of autonomous vehicle software in the works.

S, T. "How Does a Self-Driving Car Work?" The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 29 Apr. 2013. Web. 05 July 2013.

This article begins by explaining the benefits of having driverless cars in our lives. Some of the benefits include reducing road deaths, easing traffic congestion, and reducing fuel consumption. The driverless car is created by taking certain features of cars, some that already exist, such as emergency brakes, automatic parking, lane-keeping-systems, and many other features, and connecting them all with a software system. Although the driverless car offers many benefits, it still poses some challenges, such as its ability to drive in snow or ice, and driving in areas with construction projects that cause road changes. These are the challenges that companies like Google and BMW are looking for solutions so that they can release their models to the public.

to infinity and beyond

Brian O’ Leary. Mining the Apollo and Amor Asteroids.Science , New Series, Vol. 197, No. 4301 (Jul. 22, 1977), pp. 363-366. Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science

This article assesses the plausibility of mining Apollo and Amor asteroids, and compares the mining missions to these asteroids with lunar missions, as well as missions to main belt asteroids. The author examines the mining missions mainly from the energy perspective, and compares the three alternatives as sources of materials for space manufacturing, aiming to minimize the total cost of mining and transportation to the final destination. He concludes that mining these Earth approaching asteroids is the most effective solution, but mentions that more research should be done to determine whether a combination of mining Apollo and Amor asteroids and the lunar surface will be preferable.

Gerlach CL. Profitably exploiting near-earth object resources. 2005 International Space Development Conference. National Space Society. Washington, DC. 2005.

This article includes a detailed analysis of the resources on the asteroids, classifies the asteroids based on the type of resources they could provide, and explores the possible markets for the mined material. Gerlach also presents the equipment and technology that need to be used for such missions, and explains in detail the operation of the miner that will be used. The author mentions the concerns about both scientific and political risk that such a mission might entail, and, finally, makes a financial report, including comparison of terrestrial and NEO mining.

Howes, Nick. "Bringing Space to the Masses: Q&A with Planetary Resources’ Chris Lewicki." Universe Today RSS. N.p., 13 June 2013. Web.

Chris Lewicki is the President and CEO of Planetary Resources, an asteroid mining company that formed in 2008 by Peter Diamandis and Eric Anderson. The company was originally called Arkyd Astronautics, which stuck until 2012. The company recently completed a Kickstarter campaign, which raised around $800k in a week, making it one of the most staggering Kickstarter success stories ever. The Arkyd 100 will be used to examine near Earth asteroids. The first test launch will be as early as 2014, and then in 2015 they’ll start with the space telescopes using the Arkyd technology. By 2017 Planetary Resources hopes to identify and classify potentially interesting NEO targets for future mining. By the early 2020’s the aim is to be doing extraction from asteroids, and starting sample return missions.

Hammonds, Markus. "Asteroid Mining: Booming 21st Century Gold Rush?" DNews. N.p., 4 Feb. 2013. Web.

Deep Space Industries and Planetary Resources are two asteroid mining companies, with the same basic goal, but their intended methods are somewhat different. Planetary Resources are currently developing small, low-cost “LEO” telescopes to survey asteroids on demand, from Earth orbit. They later plan to develop two larger types of prospecting craft. The “Interceptor” will act as a longer range orbit. Finally, the “rendezvous Prospector” would be able to travel halfway across the inner solar system to gather detailed information about asteroids. DSI, on the other hand, are taking a more aggressive approach. “Firefly” and “Dragonfly” are two planned spacecraft; the first will prospect for suitable asteroids to mine, then the other will go start collecting asteroid material. Both companies intend to harvest metal, and hydrogen and oxygen to effectively create orbital fuel stations for other spacecraft. DSI plans to involve a 3D printer, dubbed the “microgravity foundry” will be able to create high quality metal components in orbit. The article goes on extrapolating what can come about from successful asteroid mining, saying that it could help drive human exploration of the solar system, facilitate colonization of other parts of the solar system, and we could see outposts not unlike the ISS in other parts of the solar system.

Harris, Stephen. "Your Questions Answered: Asteroid Mining." Engineering News & Engineering Jobs. The Engineer, 8 Apr. 2013. Web. 08 July 2013.

This article is contributed to by four experts – two founders of corporations planning on mining in space (Planetary Resources and Deep Space Industries), and two university professors with expertise in this area. They answer a variety of questions concerning the logistics, practicality, and plans for asteroid mining. They discuss what types of minerals are available through space mining, how asteroids are selected, and what technology is available or still needed for these missions. They also talk about the cost, feasibility, and timescale of asteroid mining.

Simberg, Rand. “Homesteading the Final Frontier.” Issue Analysis 2012 No. 3: n. pag. Web. 9 July 2013.

Space law is a topic that not many people are forced to consider on a regular basis. In this article, the author discusses the legality of property rights in space. It focuses on the 1967 Outer Space Treaty and the 1979 Moon Treaty. The article explains that the current interpretation of these treaties has held back development of space technologies, despite huge opportunities for businesses in space. This is because property rights are an essential component of wealth. The author then presents one potential solution, the Space Settlement Prize Act.

Brophy, John, Fred Culick, Louis Friedman, et al. "Asteroid Retrieval Feasibility Study." Keck Institute for Space Sciences. Web. 9 July 2013.

This lengthy paper with a ton of authors discusses what the title says, the feasibility of retrieving a near-earth asteroid by the middle of the next decade. They believe that it will be possible to return one of these asteroids to high lunar orbit by 2025. The authors believe that this mission would have scientific, commercial, and social benefits and that it may be essential for further exploration in space. The study concludes that every challenge this mission would present can be met, and that the total cost of the mission would be around $2.6 billion.

Metzger, Phillip T et al. "Affordable, Rapid Bootstrapping of the Space Industry and Solar System Civilization." Journal of Aerospace Engineering 2013.26 (2013) 8-29. Web. July 09 2013.

This article deals with the idea of an ultimately self-replicating system that could industrialize space. The article deals with starting such a system on the moon, eventually spreading it to various asteroids in the asteroid belt. The general ideas however could be applied directly to asteroid mining systems. After introductions the article talks about various possible stages for setting up a self-sustaining industry on the moon. They basic requirements for the first stage are listed and then each is discussed in increased detail. This includes things like excavators, chemical plants, and 3-D printers, all designed to operate in a space environment. The article also goes into some discussion regarding the operation of such machinery, such as the initial tele-operated robotics and the eventual development of intelligent systems to automate the process. The article proposes a way of doing all these things with a relatively light initial payload to the moon (or an asteroid). Overall it is a very good overview of the various technical machine components of a space-based mining and construction industry.

Hasnain, Zaki et al. "Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth". Astra Astronautica 81 (2012) 523-531. Web. July 09 2013.

This paper does a basic study of the energy needed to move near earth asteroids into earth orbit. One of the main motivations of this is to bring such asteroids back to earth for mining. The paper goes into some current thrust technology available for bringing asteroids into an earth orbit, and discusses the feasibility and a little bit of the economics of using these various technologies for mining. The main thrust of the paper is providing an algorithm that essentially determines the energy and maneuvers needed to bring an asteroid to earth. Thus, we have some more estimates of the reasonableness of Mining asteroids. The paper also gives a direct recommendation of 23 asteroids that could be used in future mining and capture expeditions, giving a good starting point for the companies we are considering.

Lewis, John S. Mining the Sky: Untold Riches from the Asteroids, Comets, and Planets. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub., 1996. Print.

This book covers two main ideas for space missions: extracting minerals and making space habitable for humans. The author, John Lewis, points to space mining as the answer the depletion of natural resources on earth. He discusses how minerals from asteroids could be used in fusion reactors, the atmosphere of mars could be used as rocket fuel, and how the large gas-giant planets in our solar system could supply us with enough natural gas to last forever. The primary use he finds for the minerals collected would be He also claims that plans to mine asteroids are economically feasible if attempted by smaller private companies rather than the government. Although this book was written well before these things were practical, many of the topics discussed by Lewis are very relevant to today’s explorations in space mining.

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